Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Every person has their own ways of living life. When an individual starts to make decisions, the quality of life is always considered. People resides in different parts of the world and the lifestyles varies from where they came from. Determining for the best place to live could give a greater impact in one's life as there are two options that are worthwhile to consider. For any reasons, an individual can freely choose the lifestyle of either in urban and rural living providing the advantages and disadvantages from both places. Urban and Rural settlements affects the lifestyle of a person as it differs from the kind of education, employment opportunities and the environment they live in. Education plays an important role to a successful career depending to the quality of education a person can acquire to learn. In rural areas, poverty is one of the main problems that affects the educational outcome of the students. This often leads to individuals dropping out school just to support and provide for their parents and to also help them manage the household. Moreover, not many children living in less developed villages have the opportunity to study, especially in college. Countless amounts of people may not have the opportunity to have the future they dreamed of due to the fact of where they grew up or certain circumstances in their life that disabled them from their goals. Distance is another problem have to face because of the lack of transportation. Although many struggle to get to places due to lack of transportation, those who live in the rural area struggle more. A teacher also faces many challenges in rural schools. Teachers in rural areas are paid with low salaries and the lack of teachers is another huge obstacle on the way to education. Teachers are extremely important because they give the students a foundation to work from and help the students build their way up in life. So the lack of teachers would make a huge impact on the students life and future. In urban areas, by contrast, an advantage manifested by urban students usually takes place in advanced country and economy. All of the students can get access of the wealth and social opportunities that big cities can offer. Urban schools are usually larger in size and they particularly have the resources and facilities that the rural area tends to lack. Most of the schools in the cities have advanced and qualified teachers as they get ahold of continuing trainings and workshops. The range of employment options must be considered when choosing a kind of job. In Urban areas where the population is high and extremely populated, most people intend to apply for jobs where they can get a good salary. According to the research from Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA), Ã¢â¬Å"the most high-skilled, high paying occupations tend to cluster in urban areas. Urban centers tend to specialize in knowledge-based work with high concerns of Technicians, Engineers, Scientist and Executives, while in rural areas have larger concentration of Machinist and Makers, which generally require less skill and receive lower salaries.Ã¢â¬ (Florida 2012).In rural areas, residents do not have enough employment options due to the lack of job opportunities and most people has an inverse relationship with agriculture. In contrary, urban areas are developed in an a planned and systematic way in terms of industrialisation. A division of labor is always present in the urban settlement for job allotment and because of the great opportunities for growth and the concentration of people, urban areas are preferred for developmental programs where the business are most likely invested. Environmental conditions gives an impact on an individual's quality of life. People living in remote places is usually described as a quiet and peaceful paradise which is a perfect place to unwind and escape from hustle and bustle of the city life. Besides rural areas are less crowded because there are not many people and cars. The scenery in rural areas are beautiful and well- conserved thus the people can enjoy the nature and have a peaceful mind. In contrast with the city dwellers, who lead a hectic life and often feel annoyed due to great stress in the daily life such as traffic, dealing with higher rates of crime and paying higher taxes. With regards to the nature, the trees are cut in urban areas for construction of roads and buildings that results to the lost of agricultural lands. The pollution and the deforestation has led to environmental imbalance and health problems, which shadow the future of urban living. Urban settlements are determined by the advanced conveniences, opportunities of education, facilities for transport, and business while the rural settlements are based more on natural resources and events. For a person who plans to reside on a specific place and get the kind of dream life however, will note the contrast between the settlement options along with how it differs in the quality of education, employment options, and the environment in both rural and urban areas.
Abraham Maslow is a well-known psychologist for his theory on human motivation, specifically the Hierarchy of needs theory, and for his work with monkeys. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory can also be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"intensity at a taskÃ¢â¬ . This means that greater the motivation, the more constant and intense one will perform s specific task. The basis behind this theory is the knowledge that all behaviour is goal driven, meaning one will do tasks according to what they obtain after the task is complete. Maslow has been a very inspirational figure in personality theories. The Hierarchy of Needs theory has four different levels before one comes to full self-actualizing. These levels are, in order, the psychological needs, safety, love and care and esteem needs. The psychological needs are those one needs to survive, such as food, water, oxygen, shelter and more. Then comes the need for safety and protection for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s familyÃ¢â¬â¢ these needs include safe shelter, security, protection from both mental and physical damage, and others. Thirdly is the need for love and care, which is the need for affection, friends and relationships in general. Lastly, the esteem needs. These needs are those that one gets from him or herself. There are two types, low self esteem and a high self esteem. The low self esteem needs include wanting the respect of others, status, fame, recognition and even dominance. The high self-esteem need is to have respect for yourself; this is the higher of the two self-esteems because self-respect is harder to loose than the resp ect of others. See more:Ã Social Satire in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay Self-actualization is to have all of the needs fulfilled and to be settled with a good job. According to Maslow, a person who is fully self-actualized, have the following character traits. According to his research, e stated that self-actualizers tend to be reality centred, meaning these people can distinguish between what is fake and dishonest from what is real and true. They were problem centred; people treated lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulties as problems demanding solutions, the need for privacy and they were independent of culture and relied on their own experiences and judgments; they were, in the best sense, non conformists. Those who were self-actualized had democratic values; open to ethnic and individual variety, social interest and they enjoyed having intimate personal relationships with a few close friends. Maslow recorded these findings by observing a group of historical figures, which included Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Ghandi, Albert Einstein and others. In his findings, he also stated that self-actualizers have a pacifist sense of humour, which means they would rather tell jokes about themselves or at the world in general rather than at others. These people accepted people for who they were; they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t try to change them to what they thought each person should be like and they prefer being themselves than being pretentious or artificial. With all these high-quality traits, there were some flaws with the self-actualizers studied by Maslow. These flaws were that the subjects that were being tested on suffered from anxiety and guilt. Some of them were absentminded, overly kind and, lastly, they had unexpected moments of ruthlessness and a loss of humour. All of these findings of Maslow have created a basic understanding of what things are necessities to humans and which are not. For example, in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, this was most important to those who were looking for meaning and purpose in their lives. This theory helped them look for a path to lead their life to success. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was also inspirational to Mihalyi Csikeszentmihalyi and Douglas McGregor. Mihalyi Csikeszentmihalyi continued MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of Ã¢â¬Å"flow.Ã¢â¬ This theory helped Douglas McGregor to make his theory of Theory X and Theory Y by being a building block. Without MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs theory, these two people may not have come up with the idea/theory that they did. It is said that MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs follows the life cycle of humans. The first stage, psychological needs is a newborn babyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, safety comes as the baby begins to crawl and walk, the social aspect come in when the baby is a toddler, they seek attention by doing something that no one has seen before and amazes the audience. The fourth need, esteem or ego, comes when humans are teenagers; this means when humans are concerned with respectÃ and popularity and only some humans go on to self-actualizing. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory being related to the development of humanÃ¢â¬â¢s helps for humans to realize how his theory really does work and how it intertwines with the development of humans. Another way that MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s was inspirational was, for example, the reason why humans wake up in the morning and what motivates us to do so. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory states that by accomplishing goals, people motivate themselves to do even more. When a person is on the rise of success or promotion or an increase in business profits, they are excited and they motivate themselves to get up in the morning and to do more to get more excitement. Lastly, MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was a great importance to education. His theory applies to education because if the teacher wants to maximize the effectiveness of teaching programs around the schools and individual classrooms, the administrators must consider what the children want first. If the students feel that the workload is extremely heavy, then administration staff and teachers should take this into account and either lower the workload or give longer due dates for the students to finish their work. This gives the students encouragement to do their work as they realize the teacher has taken our problem into consideration and has given us what we asked for. Those teachers who know their students needs use this theory and are successful teachers. Both the administration and student body like these teachers; administration is happy that students are doing their work mostly on time and the student body like the teacher because he/she cooperates and listens to what they have to say. Thus MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has had an impact on the teaching styles of teachers in order to cope with the students. In conclusion, MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is inspirational not only to teachings but also to everyday life. His theory helped everyone in society to realize basic needs of life and to spend their money and time where it is most needed and worry about the luxuries after the necessities are complete. Without this inspirational theory created by Maslow, people around the world may not know what the basic needs of life are. For example, the third worldÃ countries and first world countries would have even less in common than what they do today. At least today they have the same basic needs, maybe without this theory even this would be different. Therefore, Abraham Maslow as an inspirational psychologist who has lead us to the right way of spending money and time. Works Cited Abraham Maslow: Understanding Human Motivation 17 Oct 2003 Boeree, Dr. C. George. Abraham Maslow. 16 Oct 2003 Hoffman, Edward. The Right To Be Human. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, 1988. House of Essays: Abraham Maslow http://www.houseofessays.com/viewpaper/9245.html Nancy Benson, Sharon Crosier, Linda Parker. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Motivation Theory And Its Application To Education. 16 Oct. 2003
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The Mustang and Camaro have been compared since the Camaro first came out in the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Mustang was pretty much the only sports car that was also a muscle car. Well, of course Chevrolet had to compete with Ford so they came out with the Camaro. The release of the Mustang was followed closely by the release of the Camaro a few years later. There is no doubt about it that the team from Chevrolet had stolen a magnificent idea and plan. These two muscle cars began the path for a revolution in pony cars and racing. America fell in love with the Mustang and Camaro, which allowed Ford and Chevrolet to sell millions of them in just a few years. Ford has continuously been selling a large number of Mustangs ever since the beginning. Chevrolet had to stop their production of the Camaro. In 1961, the vice president and general manager of Ford, Lee Iacocca had a dream. He envisioned the Ford Mustang. It took several months to get approval for funding to go towards the Mustang through multiple discussions, meetings and market surveys. The funding was granted in 1962. The MustangÃ¢â¬â¢s parts were mainly borrowed from the Falcon to help keep the costs of production low. The car offered a variety of options for the exterior, interior, etc. Buyers were able to choose if they wanted their mustang to be fast, fancy, economical or plain. Ford wanted the MustangÃ¢â¬â¢s design to appeal to everyone and anyone. It was advertised as Ã¢â¬Å"the car to be designed by youÃ¢â¬ . The Camaro was based off of another Chevrolet car, the Nova. The Camaro had been designed to compete with FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Mustang. Its code name was the Panther, before any information about the Camaro was ever leaked into the public. Chevrolet had wanted to keep their cars nameÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning with the letter C. A few options for the Camaro had been Chevy II, Chevelle, Corvette, etc. Somehow they decided on Camaro, which a product manager of Chevrolet answered when asked what a Camaro is, he said Ã¢â¬Å"a small, vicious animal that eats MustangsÃ¢â¬ . It was reported that General Motor researchers found in the French dictionary that Camaro was slang for friend or companion. Though is was rumored that the Ford Company had researched and discovered some other definitions to the word Camaro, such as Ã¢â¬Å"a shrimp-like creatureÃ¢â¬ and an arcane for loose bowels. On March 9 of 1964, the first Mustang which was a white convertible with a v-8 engine came out of Dearborn Michigan. Then a month later the Ford Mustang came out in the world with its debut at the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Fair in Flushing Meadows, New York. The first Mustang that came out of the assembly line was in April of 1964. This first model of the Ford Mustang, which was the early 1965 or also known as the 1964 Ã ½, was available as a convertible or coupe. It had a 170-cubic inch six cylinder engine with a three-speed floor shift transmission. A V8 engine was optional with a four-speed manual transmission or a three-speed automatic with a cruise transmission. The day of the grand opening for the Mustang over twenty two thousand were sold. Within its first twelve months, Ford sold close to four hundred seventeen thousand Mustangs. In eighteen months, roughly a million Mustangs had been sold. It was a huge hit with America. The first Camaro came out in September of 1966 but was the 1967 model, as it is referred to as. When it was first available there were hardly any extra or special options for the car. That changed within the next following years and so forth. The Camaro offered a V6 or V8 engine in convertible or coupe. When the 1969 Camaro models were introduced, the car had improved greatly. A new power option was a Z28 package which had formally been known as the RPO Z28 Camaro Special Performance Package. The Z28 was one of the first special options and it was originally designed to compete in the Sports Car Club of America, which is a racing club. There are four generations to the Chevrolet Camaro. The first generation was from 1967 to 1969. That model was offered in a coupe or convertible with the option of a 4.1 L, 4.9 L, 5.0L, 5.4L and a 5.7L in a V8 engine. The second generation was from 1970 to 1981. Chevrolet changed the styling to a wider and larger vehicle which produced a heavier Camaro. The third generation was from 1982 to 1992. They were the first model of Camaros that offered fuel injection. The fourth generation was from 1993 to 2002. It held onto the same basic characteristics as the original; a couple or convertible, rear-wheel drive and the choice of a V6 or V8 engine. For thirty five years Chevrolet had been producing the popular Camaro. Chevrolet claimed that they stopped production of the Camaro due to plant overcapacity, slowing sales, and fading market for sports coupes. Just recently in 2009, Chevrolet released the 2010 Camaro. We will see how they do this time around. The Ford Mustang currently has five generations. With each generation Ford made sure to improve the horse power. The first generation was from 1964 Ã ½ to 1973. The second generation was from 1974 to 1978. It was originally based off of the Ford Maverick but instead they used the Ford Pinto in the end. Because of the way the economy was going at the time, Ford needed to build a smaller and more fuel-efficient Mustang. Not only did they need to do this to appeal to customers still but to also to capture peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eye as the Energy Crisis erupted. The third generation was from 1979 to 1993. This generation model was based off of the Ã¢â¬ËFoxÃ¢â¬â¢ platform. It had originally been created for the 1978 Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr. The interior of the third generation was meant to be more comfortable even though the back seats were smaller. The trunk was larger though, as well as the engine bay. This allowed the car to be easier to work on and service. The body styles were coupes, at the time was also referred to as a notchback, and a hatchback. A convertible was not available until 1983. The fourth generation is from 1994 to 2004. This generation underwent the most drastic redesign in over fifteen years. It had been code named SS-95 by Ford. It was also a more recent and updated version of the Fox platform. This new styled generation took several styles from the earlier Mustangs. A new twist was that it was the first time since 1973 that a hatchback coupe was not available. The V6 was a 3.8 engine for the models of 1994 and 1995. Unfortunately, Ford stopped using the 5.0L V8 for the GTs. The 5.0L had been used for around 40 years, it was a drastic change. But the 5.0L was used last on the 1994 and 1995 models. The new GT engine would be a 4.6L. For the 1999 to 2004 models the Mustang had a new edge styling theme for the body. It included sharper contours, creases in the bodywork and even larger wheel arches. The chassis and interior design remained the same was the previous model. And last but most definitely not least is the fifth generation which is the current generation from 2005 to present. At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, a new Mustang was introduced. It had been codenamed S-197. This new generation closely resembled the fastback Mustangs from the late 1960s. This new model was called as Ã¢â¬Å"retro-futurismÃ¢â¬ by FordÃ¢â¬â¢s senior vice president of design. The V6 now had a 4.0L engine instead of a 3.8L engine. A brand new option that was first available for the 2009 Mustangs was a glass sun roof. The 2010 Mustang was unveiled by Ford before the Los Angeles International Auto Show. The 2010 Mustang mainly held the same look as the previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s model but with a modified exterior. Ford was looking for a leaner and muscular appearance for their 2010 Mustang. For the first time ever the Mustang had a reverse camera system to help drivers while backing up. Though, this feature is not available on basic V6Ã¢â¬â¢s. The 2011 Mustang should be out around the spring of 2010 and it is a very anticipated model. It will closely resemble the 2010 model, with perhaps some slight changes to the rear. It is hard to find information on the upcoming 2011 Mustang. One thing is for sure though, Ford is bringing back the 5.0L engine for it which excites many. Still to this day the Ford Mustang is running strong. The Mustang has even more varieties, variations and options. There is no other vehicle out there that has as many options as the Mustang does. So many different types branch off of the Ã¢â¬Å"MustangÃ¢â¬ . Several examples are: Cobra, Shelby, Super Snake, Saleen, Mach 1, Fastback, California Special, Bullit, High Country Special, Boss, etc. They are never ending. There are so many differences and similarities between these two famous and popular pony cars. There is even so much more that a person can compare and contrast about Mustangs and Camaros. Not only because of the years, numerous changes, and that it is Ã¢â¬â after all Ã¢â¬â a car, but also because they have had a heated and natural rivalry since the very beginning. Oddly enough, it was rather difficult to find a lot of information and details on the Camaro, especially compared to the Mustang. The Mustang had numerous of information that was able to be found. And, remember the Mustang started it all in 1964, and has not stopped since!
Monday, July 29, 2019
Informative Speech Outline - Essay Example Therefore, how many of you belong to a fraternity or a sorority for that matter? Do any of you know the background information of any sorority you have ever heard of or belonged? IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to provide you with the background history of the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated as well as the accomplishments attained by the organization. B. Tie to the audience: By show of hands, how many of you have ever heard or belonged to a sorority or a fraternity? Today IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to talk about the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Inc. From your show of hands I have noticed that most of you either belong or have heard of sororities and fraternities. C. My credentials: I and my siblings belonged to sororities along with fraternities while we were in college. I want to inform everyone who is here that there is a lot interesting stuff regarding sororities and fraternities. The history of almost every sorority is very captivating. D. Main topic/Thesis statement: Unfortunately, there is no way we can make it back there since we are all out of college. That is the reason it is crucial to know the history and purpose of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Incorporated. 5. Evidence: A sorority is a group of people usually women that is formed by a sisterhood of common aspirations and goals making a commitment to each other for life. The members that usually form the sorority share their knowledge, friendship and efforts (Torbenson & Parks, 2012). Delta Sigma Theta was established in 1913 by a group of 22 women at Howard University. The women were dedicated to service especially targeting the African-American community. 9. Evidence: As cited by Giddings (2009), Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Inc. is the largest Greek-lettered African-American organization. It is also open to any woman who qualifies for the membership requirements. 10. Analysis: The sisterhood has more than 300,000 initiated members who are majorly black. It has a global presence in countries such as, Japan,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Pakistan humanitarian needs (Solar energy and Clean water plants) - Assignment Example There is clear evidence that Islamists are part of political system following the election of Rehman as the leader of opposition. Tribalism is evident by the number of killings in areas occupied by different tribes like Uzbeks and Chechens. Ethno-nationalism is also evident when militants destroyed energy producing station in Balochistan (Gladstone, 120). The author has a number of claims regarding Pakistan as a weak country due to various reasons including failure to protect its citizens. The author has substantial evidences to support the claims derived from undesirable acts from different groups posing threats to the country. After the analysis of the claims, I have effectively understood the humanitarian needs of the Pakistan people. The cruel acts of militants evident after destruction of Kari-Dor Bridge and Sui gas plants have greatly contributed to answering of the research question. This has given me clear insight of the question. The need for clean water plants and the solar energy to improve the well being of the citizens can be derived
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Plate tectonics - Essay Example All the plates in the world, whether major or minor, whether oceanic or continental, have some bearing on each other at one point. There are three known types of plate boundaries and one of these three is a convergent plate boundary. When a foremost plate transpose between each other, meeting borderlines of these plates encounter along it. As a result, earthquakes are generated due to the large amounts of forces and energies that are released when these plates encounter one another at their boundaries. The majority of the most formidable earthquakes have been the result of these convergent plate boundaries. In addition, in convergent plate boundaries, two plates move and one of them is subducted, or moved underground as the other supersedes above. Where the outermost layer of the Earth, the crust is broken and split and is reprocessed into the mantle is called as the Subduction Zone. Ã¢â¬Å"These are recognized as Subduction Zones, a major site of volcanism on Earth.Ã¢â¬ (Eggins 1 59) Convergent plate boundaries are further categorized into three types, named from the two different kinds of plates that are involved. First is the Oceanic-Continental Plate Convergence. This happens when a continental plate supersedes and overrides an oceanic plate, pushing this oceanic plate underneath the continental plate. The usual landform that is created or produced is a mountain range, a strip of mountains that are linked together by elevated ground. As written in Geology.com contributed by Hobart King, Ã¢â¬Å"The Andes Mountain Range of western South America is another example of a convergent boundary between an oceanic and continental plate. Here the Nazca Plate is subducting beneath the South American plate.Ã¢â¬ The second type of a convergent plate boundary is a. This time, the two plates that are involved are both oceanic plates. Thus, this second type is called the oceanic-oceanic plate convergence and the landform that is created is a trench, an extensive and great hollow dent
Friday, July 26, 2019
Stress - Essay Example It depends on the ability of the persons involved to be able to cope with the demands, effectively and efficiently. Looking at the definition of the stress, we can see that there are three major approaches that may be used to manage the stress; action oriented approach, emotionally-oriented approach and acceptance-oriented approach. In action-oriented approach to manage stress, we seek to confront the problem which was causing the stress. This is done by changing the environment or the situation. To be able to take an action-oriented approach, we must have some power or control, in the situation. If we possess that power, then action-oriented approaches are some of the most satisfying and rewarding ways of managing stress. Through these techniques, we can manage and overcome stressful situations, by changing them to our advantage. In emotionally-oriented approach for stress management, we do not have the power to change the situation, but we can manage stress by changing our interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it. If we do not have the power to change a situation, then we may be able to reduce stress by changing the way we look at it, using an emotionally-oriented approach. Emotionally-oriented approaches are often less attractive than action-oriented approaches. The stresses can recur. However, these approaches of stress management are still effective and useful. The third approach is acceptance-oriented, where it is assumed that something has happened over which we have no power and no emotional control, and where our focus is on surviving the stress. Sometimes, we have so little power in a situation that all we can do to survive it. In these situations, often the first stage of coping with the stress is to accept oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of power. These different approaches to stress management address the problem for solution in different ways: the action-oriented techniques help us to manage the demands upon us and increase the resources
Anthropology - Essay Example Her suggestion of economic localization is ideal because it can reduce people to depend on other countries and make them more engaging and produce products which are of cultural value and importance. It can also prosper the local economy and make people more productive .According to ( Norberg) Ã¢â¬Å"Producers and consumers were closely linked in a community-based economyÃ¢â¬ . Also urban gardens are vital to the ecological environment as it allows enrichment of nature. Local food movement is essential as it encourages people to stand for themselves and it can increase bio Ã¢â¬â diversity .World need to grow locally and need to create unique identity of their culture and community. The two group of people mentioned by author as Tibetan farmers and Amazon tribal can be benefited from these strategies. Tibetan farmers can be encouraged to engage in more of live stock farming as it could enhance their prosperity and also avail them with meat and milk which is a main part of their diet. Amazon tribes can be prompted to indulge in agriculture of cereals and vegetables which suit their geographical nature and it can give them abundant food source and income too. Hodge, Helena N. "Globalisation versus Community." http://www.localfutures.org. ISEC, 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2014.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Publicly-listed companies - Essay Example Business organizations are formed and nurtured by individuals; therefore, the norms are a reflection of the character patterns of the proprietors. The acts of a defiant worker will result, depending on his/her target, lead to either productivity loss, sabotage property, show no respect for others or anti-social to colleagues. Out of the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to have and regulate ethical behaviors, jurisdictions have developed and enacted into law ethical guidelines that inform decisions. Unethical behaviors have been defined in federal law to include invasion of privacy, theft, embezzlement, fraud, price fixing and incomplete disclosures. All organizations are bound by the rules intended not only to punish, but to encourage companies to prevent violations (Zschietzschmann 25). There are three influences in ethical decision-making; intensity, moral development and ethical principles. Ethical intensity is the degree of concern people hold about ethical issues encompassing magnitude of consequences, social consensus, probability of effect, temporal immediacy, proximity of effect and concentration of effect. Ethical principles are a sum-total of long-term interests, personal virtue, religious injunctions, government regulations, utilitarian benefits, individual rights and distributive justice in guiding the process of decision-making. In enforcing and preserving ethical behavior, a company must have code of ethics that all employees must abide by whether inside or outside the workplace. The code of ethics informs, from the onset, how employees are hired to ensure that the employee personal interest conforms to that of the organization. Ethics are further transmitted through continuous training as the law is not static. When faced with an ethical issue to deci de, individual needs to identify the problem as a first step. The next step is to identify the extent of the effect it causes followed by why it came to happen. One has to explore the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Response Paper Guidelines - Essay Example In the opening section of the article, Fitzhugh maintains that he established a quarterly journal in 1987 in order to help other students and teachers measure the outcomes of education. Thus, the journal, The Concord Review, offers the students a chance to publish the exemplary high school history essays. Another forum founded by Fitzhugh, the National Writing Board was concerned with providing an independent assessment of high school research papers and he maintains that the students of history have made good use of it. In the following sections of the article, the author recounts the nature of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ term papers, and the significance and consequences of writing such papers, etc. He also suggests the various Ã¢â¬ËforcesÃ¢â¬â¢ or hazards that dumb down writing and nonfiction reading in the high schools. According to Fitzhugh, the encouragement and publicity given to serious nonfiction academic writing are not sufficient and the endeavors such as The Concord Review are n ot able to survive due to Ã¢â¬Ëvery little money and few subscribersÃ¢â¬â¢.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Gamestop - Essay Example (Gamestop) The updated information lists its store network at 6,683 stores, all owned by the company, located in four key regions, namely Canada, Australia, Europe and the US. Its range of products extend to software, hardware, personal computer software, accessories, and related merchandise. It has a market capitalization of 2.85 billion dollars, a third of its peak market capitalization achieved in 2007. Share prices at present are comparable to levels in 2006 and have been at those levels since 2009, suggesting that prices are stable and that market prospects are stable as well (Google). It is clear from the business overview that its business strategy centers on excellence in distribution, and diversification to include all key segments of the gaming industry,, across different hardware and software platforms, and including online. It is a business strategy centered partly on achieving scale economies, and akin to the business model for Amazon and Walmart, catering to the targeted market of gaming (Google; Gamestop). A PEST analysis reveals that out of these four external environment factors, the stable political environment in the markets where the company operates means that political factors are not as important as technological factors, owing to the rapid changes in the gaming industry, and in the technology and information technologies industries in general (Google; Gamestop) Gamestops competitive position is ok, given its stable prospects as reflected in its share price, but not particularly invulnerable, given large shifts in the gaming industry from new developments in technologies, so that share prices are stagnant even as the company tries to expand its footprint as well as its sales (Google; Gamestop) Its key strengths include its large store network and online network, its significant gaming properties and its continued drive to expand, which all translate to significant scale economies and
Monday, July 22, 2019
Mycenae and Agamemnon Essay Mycenae lies about 90 kilometres south-west of Athens. From around 1600BC-1100BC Mycenae was a highly wealthy and influential city, dominating much of southern Greece. The Mycenaean Era was named in reference to the city. THE DISCOVERY OF MYCENAE It was Heinrich Schliemann who first completely excavated the city of Mycenae. The controversial archaeologist was searching for evidence that Agamemnon, the king who led the Greeks to fight Troy in the Trojan War. Schliemann was determined to prove that the Trojan War was a real event; in fact his career was based around his desire for this. After failing to find any definitive evidence in his search for Troy, he turned to Mycenae. In 1841 another archaeologist had found and restored the Lion Gate that marks the entrance to the city of Mycenae, but Schliemann was the first to systematically excavate the entire site. He believed that the Homeric tales described actual historical events and used his discoveries at Mycenae to back this up. DISOVERIES MADE AT THE SITE Discovered in Grave Circle A by SchliemannÃ¢â¬â¢s team, a dagger shows the militaristic values of the MycenaeanÃ¢â¬â¢s. From the weapons buried with most of the bodies found, we can deduct that the MycenaeanÃ¢â¬â¢s were not a peaceful people. They revelled in fighting, as shown by the violent motifs on their stelae and decorative weapons. Most graves featured full sets of weapons, both real and decorative. We can assume that life for the men of Mycenae would have had a heavy focus on fighting , with men of higher status being shown as brave fighters. This is also shown through the architecture of the city, particularly the Cyclopean walls. These huge walls show a need for a defensive attitude, which demonstrates the MycenaeanÃ¢â¬â¢s military attitude. On this dagger there is a depiction of a lion hunt, which shows that the MycenaeanÃ¢â¬â¢s hunted for sport. This further reflects the aggressive principles of the city. Double axe and bull motifs show a Minoan influence in Mycenaean culture. Within the graves in Grave Circle A there were many objects that had been made in Mycenae but in Minoan style. This reflects an appreciation for Minoan design and an obvious link through trade and travel between Minoan Crete and Mycenae. Later the former would be conquered by the latter. In Mycenae there would have been trading of goods from Minoan Crete and an admiration of the techniques, since they were implemented in wares produced within Mycenae. The graves themselves also shed light upon burial practises and status in Mycenae. The graves themselves are shaft graves, 4 metres deep with the dead placed in a cist at the bottom along with many decadent grave goods. The Grave would sometimes be marked with a stone Stele at ground level. These stelae would be used to depict things like chariot scenes, showing the heroic nature of the deceased buried below. The grave goods showed the status of the deceased, with gold and weapons showing a higher status. This shows that burial was not only a valued practise, but also reflected status and worth, depending on what you were buried with. The so-called Ã¢â¬Å"NestorÃ¢â¬â¢s CupÃ¢â¬ was a particularly important discovery for Schliemann. His team recovered the vessel from Shaft Grave IV and Schliemann identified it as the Ã¢â¬Å"Cup of NestorÃ¢â¬ as written about in the Illiad. However the cup differs from HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s description in number of handles, the design of the birds, and size. It also is from the wrong time to have been used in the Trojan War according to some critics. However, this didnÃ¢â¬â¢t discourage Schliemann from his firm belief in the Homeric tales. This is one of the many discoveries Schliemann made that he believed contributed to proving that the tales detail historical events. CONTROVERSIES Within a shaft grave V Schliemann discovered a skeleton with a gold mask covering his face- a face which he believed was that of the legendary Agamemnon. However, in recent years critics have developed more and more arguments to the effect that the mask may be a hoax. William Calder gives the following reasons for his sceptical nature towards SchliemannÃ¢â¬â¢s find: The features of the mask are inconsistent with the other masks found; Schliemann had considered making fakes of the gold he found at Troy to give forgeries to give to the government; contemporaries of Schliemann allege that he planted artefacts to later Ã¢â¬Å"discoverÃ¢â¬ them; the excavations at both Mycenae and Troy had been closed just a few days after the discovery of the gold, suggesting that he was expecting to find these treasures and nothing else; excavations were closed for 2 days shortly before Schliemann found the mask, what could Schliemann have been doing; Sophia allegedly has a relative in Athens that was a goldsmith; No other Mycenaean grave has anywhere near what was discovered in shaft grave V; Schliemann had claimed he had excavated other finds elsewhere, when it was later revealed that he had bought them. David Traill suggests that perhaps the Agamemnon mask wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t manufactured, but found from a later tomb. Both of his appeals for a scientific examination of the mask have been denied by the Greek authorities. In response to Calder and Traill many argue that their claims are unfounded and lack any scholarly backing, and have their own arguments in response. They insist that Schliemann was carefully monitored by Greek authorities throughout his excavation, which both Calder and Triall admit to in their own publishing. Kenneth Lapatin explains that the days where Calder alleged Schliemann had time to get a mask made, were before any masks had been found yet. Although he does admit it is possible the mask may have been Ã¢â¬Å"enhancedÃ¢â¬ after it was discovered. Both sides of the debate present both personal opinions and insinuations mixed in with actual fact. Considering the dishonest nature of Schliemann it is easy to believe he planted the mask. But when considering the work at Mycenae alone, there is no undoubtable evidence to suggest that he was dishonest about that particular find, only rumour and hearsay. From the collections of circumstantial suggestions put forward by Triall and Calder, their theories become increasingly believable. However, some parts of their arguments seem reminiscent of conspiracy theories, so perhaps itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to take the mask as an important Ã¢â¬âif disputed- archaeological find, but not proving the existence of Agamemnon. BIBILOGRAPHY http://library.thinkquest.org/25245/archaeology/mycenae.html http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/greecemycenae.htmhttp://mycenae-excavations.org/about.html http://www.historywiz.com/agamemnon.htm http://odysseus.culture.gr/h/3/ eh351.jsp?obj_id=2573 http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/achilles/age/myceneans.html http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/calder.html http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/lapatin.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grave_Circle_A,_Mycenae http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/traill.html http://www.ancientgreece.com/essay/v/greek-life-as-depicted-in-homers-epic-the-odyssey/ http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/dema.html http://www.greek-thesaurus.gr/Mycenaean-weapons.html
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Different Types Of Network Devices Infrastructure security depends on the correct use of the network components. Network components are an essential aspect of the computing environment to improve the performance and security. The network components such as routers, switches and cables connect to the firewalls and gateways that manage communication from the network design to the protocols employed. If security fails then the availability of the system fails. Security failures can occur in two ways as follows: 1. Sometimes unauthorised users access the resources and data, which they are not authorised to use. 2. Security failure prevents the user from accessing the resources and data, the user is authorised to use. Both these security failures are serious. Hence, primary goal of network infrastructure security is to allow all authorised usage and deny all unauthorised usage of resources. 8.2 Devices Todays business environment consists of not only clients and servers but also network devices that are required to connect them. These network devices are called communication devices. These devices are hubs, switches, routers, LAN cards, gateway, modem, hardware firewall and so on. This also includes wireless access points, special-purpose devices such as Virtual Private Network (VPN) devices. Each of these devices has a specific network functions and plays an important role in maintaining network infrastructure security. 8.2.1 Workstations The workstations are client computers in the client-server architecture. This device is used to send and receive e-mail, to create spreadsheets, to write report in a word processing program and to play game. Many threats to information security can start at a workstation when it is connected to a network. Workstation security can be maintained by following basic steps as follows: Remove all share point that is not required. Rename the administrator account and secured it with a strong password. Remove unnecessary user accounts. Install an antivirus program and keep it updated. Disable USB ports in CMOS settings to restrict data transfer through USB devices. Install firewall between the machine and the Internet. Install latest patch for the operating system (OS) and keep the OS up to date. 8.2.2 Servers Servers are the computers in a network that host applications and data for users to share. Servers are available in many sizes, from small single CPU systems to multiple CPU systems such as mainframe computers. Servers use operating system such as Windows Server, Linux, UNIX and other mainframe operating systems. Server OS is more robust than the workstation OS and is designed to service multiple users over a network at the same time. Workstation security basic steps are applicable to server as well. 8.2.3 Network Interface Cards Network Interface Card (NIC) is a hardware device used to connect a server or workstation to a network. A NIC is used for particular type of network connection, either ethernet or token ring. In local area networks, ethernet protocol is the most common network type in use and RJ-45 is most common connector. A NIC is the physical connection between a computer and the network. NICs are available as single-port and multiport NIC. Workstation use single-port NIC, as only a single network connection is required. Whereas, server use multiport NIC to increase the number of network connections that increases the data throughput to and from the network. Every NIC has a 48-bit unique number, referred to as a Media Access Control (MAC) address which is stored in Read Only Memory (ROM). MAC address is used in the addressing and delivery of network packets to the correct system. 8.2.4 Hubs Hub is a central connecting device in a computer network. It connects multiple machines together in a star configuration with the hub as the centre. Hub broadcasts all data packets that are received, to all LAN cards in a network. The intended recipient picks the data and all other computers discard the data packets. Hub has five, eight, sixteen and more ports. One of the ports is called uplink port and this port is used to connect with the next hub. 8.2.5 Bridges Bridges operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. Bridges check the incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. 8.2.6 Switches Switches are a type of networking device similar to hubs, which connect network equipment together. In todays high-performance network environment switches have replaced both hubs and bridges. Switches operate at the data link layer of the OSI model. It uses MAC address of network cards to route packets to the correct port. Switches are intelligent network devices and are therefore can get hijacked by hackers. Switches are administered using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and telnet protocol. Both the protocols have a serious weakness. These two protocols send passwords across the networks in clear text. In such instances hacker can capture the administrative password. The major problem with the switch is that it ship with default passwords. If user does not change this password during setup, hacker can easily access it. Caution: To secure a switch, disable all access protocols other than a secure protocol such as Secure Shell (SSH). Use only secure methods to access switch will limit the exposure to hackers and malicious users. 8.2.7 Routers Router connects two or more computer networks and then exchanges packets of data between them. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network, or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another. Routers operate at the network layer of the OSI model. It has two or more network interfaces through which network traffic is forwarded or blocked. They are used to segment networks into smaller subnets or to link multiple networks together. The router decides how and when to forward packets between the networks based on an internal routing table. Routing table tells the router which packets to forward. Routers allow technicians to explicitly deny some packets the ability to be forwarded between segments. For example, internal security features of some routers can prevent users on the internal network from using telnet to access external system. Telnet is always a security risk as the passwords and all communications are transmitted in clear text. Hence, do not create telnet sessions between the internal network and an external network. Router has the ability to block spoofed packets. Spoofed packets are packets that contain an IP address in the header which is not the actual IP address of the source computer. Hackers used this technique to fool the systems showing that the packet came from an authorised system whereas, it actually came from the hackers system. Router has the ability to drop such packets. Routers are available in various sizes, small and big and from different vendors. Small router is used with cable modem and DSL service. (Figure). Larger routers handle traffic of up to tens of gigabytes per second per channel, using fibre optic cables and moving tens of thousands of concurrent Internet connections across the network. 8.2.8 Firewalls A firewall is hardware or a software program that is used to protect an internal network from outside intruders. It is much like a wall with a window. The wall keeps things out, except those permitted through the window. (Figure.). Network security policies act like a glass in the window. Security policies define what traffic is permissible and what traffic is to be blocked or denied. For example, Web server connected to the Internet may be configured to allow traffic only on port 80 for HTTP and have all other ports blocked. Firewall allows only the necessary access for a function, and block or denies all unnecessary functions. 8.2.9 Wireless In wireless device, radio waves or infrared carry data, that allows anyone within range access to the data. Placing a wireless device behind the firewall does not serve, as firewall stops only physically connected traffic from reaching the device. The devices associated with wireless networking are wireless access points. The wireless network cards are used to communicate with the access points. (Figure). Wireless access points have a limited range within which they can communicate with the client systems. When planning a wireless implementation within a new construction, make sure that the external walls contain metal studs that are grounded. Create wireless shield by using thin layers of aluminium under the drywall. This will block radio transmission into and out of the building. This will also interfere with pager and cellular phone usage. Note: Applying secure transmission protocols and configuring the wireless access point to only accept authorised connections will help in securing a network. 8.2.10 Modems Modulator and Demodulator (Modem) converts analogue signals to digital and vice versa. Modems are slow method of remote connection that is used to connect client computers to remote services over standard telephone lines. Modems are becoming less necessary, but many corporate systems still have modems installed for remote access. In corporate network, modems are located in Remote Access Service (RAS) servers and fax servers. Corporate users remotely access their system configuring modem in their PC. This is done when no other remote access solution is available or the existing remote access solution is inconvenient. These types of situations can provide an intruder the entry point to a network. The best solution to avoid this is to implement a security policy to control the installation of modems on corporate systems. Also verify that systems which need modems are properly secure. 8.2.11 Telecom/PBX In the IT security field Telecommunication (Telecom) is often overlooked. Most small companies use a small number of dedicated telephone lines for both incoming and outgoing calls. However, in larger companies having dedicated lines for thousands of employees is both inefficient and expensive. Hence, to overcome these problems install a Private Branch eXchange (PBX). A PBX is a device that handles routing of internal and external telephone lines. This allows a company to have limited number of external lines and an unlimited number of internal lines. PBX systems are cost beneficial to large companies but they also have their own vulnerabilities. PBX s is designed to be maintained by an offsite vendor and therefore have remote access available. The remote access can be through a modem or through a LAN. Hence, disable these remote access methods to limit the susceptibility to direct remote access attacks until the vendor is notified that they need to perform maintenance or prepare an update. 8.2.12 RAS Remote Access Service (RAS) connects the client and server through a dial-up telephone connection. It is slower than cable and Digital subscriber line (DSL) connection. When a user dials into the computer system, authentication and authorisation are performed through a remote access protocols. RAS servers offer security feature such as mandatory callback. This allows server to call back to the client at a set of telephone number for the data exchange. For more information on remote access protocols refer chapter 9, Authentication and Remote Access 8.2.13 VPN VPN allows users to create a secure tunnel through an unsecured network to connect to their corporate network. In large environments, VPNs are less expensive to implement and maintain than RAS servers, because there is no incoming telephone line or modem. In addition, a higher level of security can be implemented as communications are encrypted to create a secure tunnel. 8.2.14 Intrusion Detection Systems Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) is a device designed to monitor network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations. They are an essential part of network security. There are two main types of IDS that are used: network-based IDS and host-based IDS. For more information on intrusion detection systems refer chapter 11, Intrusion Detection Systems 8.2.15 Network Access Control Network Access Control is a method of network security that restricts the availability of network resources to endpoint devices as defined in the security policy. There are two main competing methodologies exist: Network Access Protection (NAP) and Network Admission Control (NAC). NAP is a Microsoft technology that controls network access of a computer host whereas, NAC is Ciscos technology that controls network admission. 8.2.16 Network Monitoring or Diagnostic The computer network needs continuous monitoring or diagnostic routine to keep administrators aware of the status of the network and allow them to take corrective actions to potential problems. This can be done through monitoring software or dedicated devices located on the network. Network monitoring or diagnostic equipment that is remotely accessible uses strong password and encrypted sessions to handle security vulnerabilities. 8.2.17 Mobile Devices Mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are the latest devices used to send and receive e-mail, connect to remote network applications, browsing the Web and so on. Many of the devices have word processor and spreadsheet applications and the ability to store limited amounts of data. Since these devices can be connected to the Internet, they are remotely accessible to potential attackers. Hence, use data encryption which is available in newer mobile devices built into their OS or use third-party software. 8.3 Media Media is used for transmitting data to and from network devices. The media can be either in the form of wire, fibre or radio frequency waves. There are four common methods used to connect devices at the physical layer as follows: Coaxial Cable Twisted-pair Cable Fibre Optics Wireless Coaxial Cable Coaxial cables are used for cabling televisions, radio sets and computer networks. The cable is referred to as coaxial because both the centre wire and the braided metal shield share a common axis. It is less susceptible to interference. Today, coaxial cable is replaced by faster and cheaper twisted-pair cable. UTP/STP Twisted pair cables replaced coaxial cables in ethernet networks. Single pairs of twisted cables reduce electrical crosstalk and electromagnetic interference. Multiple groups of twisted pairs are then bundled together and easily wired between devices. Twisted pairs are of two types: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP). STP has a foil shield around the pairs to provide extra shielding from electromagnetic interference. Whereas, in UTP twist itself eliminates interference. Depending upon the data transmission, twisted pair cables are classified into three different categories as follows: Category 3 (Cat 3) It is used for data and voice transmission and for 10Mbps Ethernet. Category 5 (Cat 5/ Cat 5e) It is used for 100 Mbps fast ethernet. Cat 5e is an enhanced version of the Cat 5 specification to address far end crosstalk. Category 6 (Cat 6) It is used for gigabit ethernet. Fibre Fibre is a very thin piece of glass or plastic that has been stretched out and enclosed in a sheath. Fibre optic cable uses beams of laser light to connect devices. It transfers data over long distances and at higher speeds. Since it does not contain any metal part to conduct current, it is not vulnerable to electromagnetic interference. This also protects it from lightening strikes. Two major drawbacks using these cables are their high cost. Other drawback is the connection has to be optically perfect or performance will be downgraded or the cable may not work. Figure: Unguided Media Unguided media does not use any physical connector between the two devices for communication. The data transmission and reception is through the air or antenna and is referred to as wireless. The three types of wireless media are as follows: Radio waves Microwaves Infrared waves 8.4 Transmission Media Security 8.5 Removable Media Removable media is a type of storage device that can be removed from a computer while the system is running. These media introduces virus when they are attached back to the network. Theft or loss of organisation secret information stored on a media can be severe financial problem or it will effect on organisations reputation. These issues can be rectified by using security policies and software. The removable media are of three types: magnetic, optical and flash memory. Magnetic Media Magnetic media devices are hard drives, floppy disks, zip disks and magnetic tape. Each device is sensitive to external magnetic field. These devices are also affected by the high temperatures and by exposure to water. For the security concern about the critical and important organisational data, do not allow users to bring floppy disk inside the organisation, as they could contain viruses or other malicious programs. Another security policy can be applied by removing floppy disk drive from users computers. Encrypting the contents of a hard drive and tape ensures the security of data. Optical Media Optical media such as CD, DVD, blu-ray and optical jukebox hold the data in digital form. The data on the physical media is read and write by laser. Optical disks are not vulnerable to magnets hence, they are more reliable and durable than the magnetic tape. CDs are very vulnerable to being scratched. If the plastic disk from the media is scratched too much, the laser will be unable to reflect through the plastic and the data will not be readable. For security of data, do not allow personal CDs inside office premises. Only authorised users should have the access to these devices and for other users these devices should be disabled or physically removed from the computers. Electronic Media The electronic media uses integrated circuit technology to store the data hence they are more stable. Since these devices are small and portable, they can be used to store limited amounts of data when portability or reliability are key necessities. Smart cards, flash cards, memory sticks and CompactFlash devices are examples of electronic media. These devices are commonly used in digital cameras, mobile phones, MP3 player, video game consoles and so on. These devices are also used to transfer data between computers. Hence, they can easily carry the virus and worms with data. For security purpose run the antivirus software before transferring any data. 8.6 Security Topologies Multiple hardware devices are connected within a network and a key characteristics of a network is its layout or topology. Security topology is implemented in such a way that it provides the internal security and public access. For example, to place an online order the organisation will require Web servers which can be accessed by the users. Then the Web servers will require access to internal database servers and internal users will require access to different servers and Internet. 8.6.1 Security Zones Modern secure network have different layers of protection with outermost layer provides basic protection and the innermost layer provides the highest level of protection. Trade-offs between access and security are handled through zones with successive zones guarded by firewalls. The outmost zone is the Internet is guarded by the firewall. The internal secure corporate network and the Internet is an area where computers are considered at risk. This zone is called as Demilitarised Zone (DMZ). DMZ DMZ acts as a buffer zone between the Internet and organisations internal secure network. To differentiate the zones, a firewall is placed at both sides of the DMZ. The firewalls are placed in such a way that the Internet users cannot directly access the organisations secure data (Refer to Figure ). Web servers, remote access server and external e-mail servers are fall in DMZ area. Domain name servers and database servers which has organisation important data should not be accessible to the Internet users. As well as application servers, file servers and print servers of trusted network zone should be placed behind both the firewalls. The main idea behind using the DMZ topology is to force an outside user to get across DMZ before user can access information inside the trusted network zone. Internet The Internet is a worldwide connection of networks. It is used to transfer e-mail, Web pages, files, financial records between networks. It is an untrusted network as it is not possible to apply security policies. Hence a firewall should be present between organisations trusted network and the Internet. Intranet Intranet resides inside the trusted area of a network and network administrators can manage its security. Intranet Web servers contents are not available to the Internet users. The organisation data can be published to outside users with two methods as follows: 1. Information can be duplicated onto computers in the DMZ so that untrusted users can access it 2. Extranets can be used to publish data to trusted users. Extranet Extranet allows outside users such as companys partners, vendors, customers and resellers to share some of the business information with authentication and authorization. Extranet allows to access data available on the intranet mainly in the DMZ. To provide security and privacy of the information, extranet requires firewall server management or digital certificates or user authentication, encryption of messages. To protect it from unauthorised access use the VPN. VLAN Virtual LAN (VLAN) is network of computers and these computers are connected to the same broadcast domain, even though they are physically located on different location. VLAN s are configured through software hence they are more flexible. When system is physically moved to different location, without any hardware reconfiguration the system stay on the same VLAN. Increased network performance, easy manageability, less configurations and higher security is the advantages of VLAN.Ã Note: A broadcast domain is a network (or portion of a network) that will receive a broadcast packet from any node located within that network. NAT Network Address Translation (NAT) is developed by Cisco. It is commonly used in TCP/IP network. It works at OSI layer 3 which is network layer. It uses two sets of IP addresses, one set for internal use and other for external use.Ã NAT is a feature of firewalls, proxies and routing capable systems. It has ability to hide the IP address and the internal network from the Internet users. This feature of NAT reduces the risk of strangers to collect important information about the network such as structure of a network, the network layout, the names and IP address of systems, and so on. Hence, they cannot gain access of the network. NAT enables internal users within an organisation to use nonroutable IP addresses which means that these IP addresses will not be routed across the Internet. These IP address is called private IP address. The private address ranges are as follows: Class A 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255 Class B 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 Class C 192.168.0.0- 192.168.255.255 After NAT configuration, external malicious users can access only the IP address of the NAT host that is directly connected to the Internet. The users are not able to access any of the internal systems that go through the NAT host to access the Internet. When NAT is used to hide internal IP addresses (Refer to Figure), it is called a NAT firewall. Internal users communicate with outside networks through the NAT device such as NAT router (Refer to Figure). This NAT router has a routing table. This table keeps track of all connection requests that have come from internal network. Each outgoing request proceeds through NAT and replaces the internal users IP address with its own IP address. This IP address then forwards to the final destination. Returned packets look up in the routing table and forward the information to the correct internal user.Ã 8.7 Chapter Review Questions 1. Which layer of the OSI model switches operate? (A) Physical layer (C) Network layer (B) Data link layer (D) Transport layer Ans: B 2. Which layer of the OSI model router operates? (A) Physical layer (C) Network layer (B) Data link layer (D) Transport layer Ans: C 3. DSL stands for ________. (A) Domain Subscriber Line (C) Digital Specific Line (B) Domain Specific Line (D) Digital Subscriber Line Ans: D 4. What should you do to secure data on the hard drive if the drive is removed from the site? (A) Encrypt the data (C) Archive the data (B) Compress the data (D) Keep strong password to log into all computers at the site Ans: A 5. Which is the most secure cable for implementing a secure network infrastructure? (A) Coaxial cable (C) Fibre cable (B) Twisted-pair cable (D) None of these Ans: C 6. What network topology area will contain public Web servers? (A) VPN (C) Firewall (B) VLAN (D) DMZ Ans: D 7. What network topology area will contain critical servers such as private Web servers, domain controllers or SQL servers? (A) Intranet (C) Internet (B) Extranet (D) DMZ Ans: A 8. What network topology area will allow business partners, customers to access the owners intranet? (A) Intranet (C) Internet (B) Extranet (D) DMZ Ans: B 9. Network access control is associated with which of the following? (A) NAT (C) IPv6 (B) IPsec (D) NAP Ans: D 10. The purpose of twisting the cables in twisted-pair circuits is to _____. (A) reduce crosstalk (C) increase bandwidth (B) increase speed (D) None of these Ans: A 8.7.1 Answers 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. A 8. B 9. D 10. A Summary In the chapter, Infrastructure Security, you learnt about Different types network devices such as Workstations, Servers, NIC, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Firewalls, Wireless, Modems, Telecom/PBX, RAS, VPN, IDS, Network Access Control, Network Monitoring and Diagnostic and Mobile Devices. Different types of communication media between the devices such as Coaxial Cable, UTP/STP Cable, Fibre Cable and Unguided Media. Different types of removable media such as Magnetic Media, Optical Media and Electronic Media. Different types of security topologies such as DMZ, Internet, Intranet, Extranet, VLAN and NAT.
Engineering Drawing Distinction Computer Science Essay There are two methods of producing engineering drawings. The most common way of drawing in engineering used to be done by hand on a piece of paper. These drawings were time consuming; they needed precision and skilful draftsman. They are still used because this is a quick method if we talk about simple sketches. On paper we can draw in different techniques that include isometric, oblique and orthographic. During my first assignment I had to use the manual technique. In this paragraph I will explain what they are. Oblique- This technique is based on showing the front of the object in 2D and the side and top in 3D. If we have a cube we will need to draw a square and to its right side measure 45Ã °. This is where lines will go to create the side. Generally, I did not find it very difficult from my point of view. Oblique involves simple equipment such as pencil, ruler and a protractor. A drawing that is usually drawn in oblique contains its benefits and limitations such as we can see the full front of the object (advantage) or that it isnt good enough in architecture where most drawings are isometric which is harder (inconvenience). Architectural drawing in Isometric (google.com)Isometric- Technique is slightly more complicated as it involves two 30Ã ° angles and if we want to draw an Isometric circle it appears to be quite hard. We will need the same equipment as in oblique however to draw an isometric circle we need a compass as well. The benefit is that we will see 3 Dimensions in more detail and it is suitable for architectural drawings. The limitation is that to draw some components in isometric more work needs to be done and it isnt easy for a beginner. Orthographic- Orthographic involves 1st and 3rd angle projections however it is easy to draw because it is in 2 dimensions. The equipment is the same as in case of Isometric. The drawing itself is very nice and simple however more details are needed such as hidden lines or sections etc. Typical Orthographic drawing shows plan, front and the side. An advantage is that it contains a lot more details and it is therefore used in manufacturing for plans. The disadvantage is that you will not be able to see how it looks as a 3D object. BELOW: equipment that can be used in the manual technique (google.com) Manually produced drawings are good because the drawer can develop his/her skills and it is suitable for quick sketching. We can just sit down with a piece of paper and a pencil and make an instant drawing. If we think back to the times where blue prints were used they were still done by hand. Manual drawings were very good however the drawer needed and still needs a lot of patience when producing a drawing not to make errors which may be disastrous for the project. Precision plays a big part in this type of drafting. We are in a higher risk of getting things wrong and if for instance the line is very thick rubbing it out will leave marks and the drawing will look not as professional. This may only spoil the neatness of drawing but we will look like an unprofessional drawer which is why it is so important to spend time and do something very well. Drawings produced manually have an advantage because when an error is made then it can be rubbed out. During my assignment work where I was asked to produce engineering sketches done manually, I found that a drawing needs to be thought through rather than rushed. This gives the drawer more calmness and so he can do it in a very short time with minimum of mistakes. The manual technique is suitable for different paper formats but with any type of formats there need to be some scaling. If we were to produce a drawing of a cars engine it will be hard to put it on A4 paper so as finding paper that is big enough to draw the engine. Scaling is simply making the picture smaller by dividing the actual size by a number that will allow us to fit the engine on paper. Could be by 8 or 25 this will depend on the engine and the paper format as well. Personally, I have used scaling for few components such as the machine vice because the actual size wouldnt fit on A4 paper. The scaling may be used wi th all of the manual techniques which is a big advantage. Manual technique is suitable for people without the knowledge of computers and software. It is therefore used in many cases. It is not used by professional companies mainly because if an error occurs which can happen within the manual technique then big sums of money can be lost. Another reason may be that everyone wants to be distinguished as a professional company who can afford a CAD drawer and so they hire a person to work on a computer rather than on paper. In fact any design starts with a paper drawn concept so originates from pencil and paper. Drafting companies dont use manual drawing because of the fact that the customer requires a formal drawing in a simple format with many details and as much clearly as possible. It is a harder task in manual drawing because it will need to be though through several times and the drawing will require lot more time. Summarising the manual technique is a good way to sketch things. The equipment needed to draw in this technique is simple to use and not expensive. The method gives us the opportunity to sketch in both 2 and 3 dimensions up to the choice. One thing that is a big unfriendly is the use of paper. This may or may not be a good reason but we need to remember about the environmental impact. The technique isnt going to be hard once we get used to it and practice as much as it is possible. It isnt a very popular technique amongst professionals one because they want to save time and the time is the money, they also want to look professional both in the eyes of their customers and the competition. Manual drafting offers flexibility to mistakes which can be corrected at any time but a problem may be that a CAD drawing can be carried on a memory stick or a CD. In terms of manual technique this isnt possible and the whole drawing needs to be carried around. CAD is a short version of Computer aided drafting. The term can be used to describe software with which it is possible to produce engineering drawings. Producing drawings using CAD was one of my tasks for assignment 2. In this explanation I will try and talk about many different advantages and disadvantages of this technique. CAD software is nowadays a vital tool for company with their own design department. It can also be used by individuals who understand how the software works. The main difference between manual drafting and using CAD is that there is no need for manual skills. Anybody with sufficient training can begin drawing variety of things in CAD. In the software we can draw in 3 Dimensions with the same projections as in manual technique. The software we have been using had a simple interface and after enough guidance by our experienced lecturer the software became very easy to use. Alternatively, there are many books which include details of options and FAQ. ABOVE: Autodesk inventor screenshot (google.com) Software works by following users commands. We have a library of standard components drawn and available to use. The commands include the very basic copy and paste and more complex such as chamfer or fillet. We can draw arcs and lines or circles and polygons. There are dimensions which we will have to enter or play around with a mouse. Before producing a drawing it is worth to set up a page of sufficient size. We can produce a template using this function. An advantage of CAD software is that they dont take up space and carrying them can be done electronically. Program is stored on a computer and any produced drawings can be carried on memory stick rather than a bunch of other drawings. The drawing can then be printed out of any printing station to the desired format. Above all that there is the accessibility. The drawing can be emailed in an electronic form to any other device. It is very good because this way a lot of time is saved if any changes need to be made to the drawing. This is another aspect I found very useful at the time of using this software. CAD software is very useful in making civil engineering plans. In mechanical and manufacturing sector, computer or a laptop can be connected to CAM manufacturing device and the plan will automatically be manufactured by the CAM machine. This minimises the costs of production. Software is expensive because it may cost up to Ã £10.000 for a year plus qualified person who can use this program and in some cases providing training to the personnel. With time the investment will turn into profit. Mainly because high accuracy and flexibility and on the top of that there is time saved on data transfer and any changes amended. Due to the fact that there are many CAD software on the market there is no easy answer on how the program works. As I have mentioned previously it works based on commands. These can be used to set up the layout of our page, the dimensions of the template and any other configuring options. Set up can include things such as: Extents- Setting up extents will limit the program to work to the page dimensions that we choose. If we want to work on A3 paper this needs to be slightly smaller than A3 paper itself so that it will be able to print the work afterwards. Grid- We have a guidance of reference points in form of a grid. This is a set of dots which can be enabled or disabled when there is a need. With aid of this it becomes very simple to draw lines and angles. Snap- Used to equalise the snap and grid to the same value, it is possible to turn it off. The function works by moving cross hairs on the screen. The drawing command is very simple; it can be anything from drawing lines to circles. Usually for lines we specify a start point and the direction and using the numerical pad we enter the length or angle. In circles we can specify to choose the diameter or radius and enter its data. Editing is also very simple so we can copy and paste, move rotate or trim or extend. The functions will vary depending on the software but these are usually the basic functions that all software contains. Businesses use CAD software because of its profitability. It is reasonable for companies to invest money into software and hire personnel who know how to operate it. It may seem costly but there are many advantages and turnouts. We look more professional and the company is time efficient. There is no impact on the environment by not using bunches of paper. The drawing itself is more eco-friendly. ABOVE: Architectural Drawing produced using CAD (google.com) The CAD software I have used for my assignments had many features that are needed in professional engineering. It contains a library of common devices such as a spring. There are also many types of gears and links. This is very significant because a feature can be picked out from the library and copied to our drawing. This way the time is saved because some components are already drawn. We can solve problem of time consuming isometric drawing using CAD. This is because we have a protractor saying the angles of each line. We will get the exact angle and length of the line. If we were to make something of a round shape we can draw arcs which are simple to do using a program. In addition to that we can label many things on the drawing or annotate it automatically. Using labelling on an engineering drawing we can draw any text which could be the standards, name of the company and the draftsperson and so on and so forth. Architectural companies may want software such as Autodesk inventor which is more suitable for their area of interest and could be used to create interactive plans and visualisations of buildings. For mechanical there is a special program called AutoCAD Mechanical which I have used personally. These programs are all related however they have different functions which are specific for the area of engineering such as the architecture. This is why a manufacturing company will not need software which will not be useful for them although it may be suitable for a specific product drawing. There are negative points to CAD as there were to manual drafting. One of them is that to get this an investment must be made and if there is no turnout, then there is no need for it. If the company has it is treated more professionally however the software isnt just totally reliable because a skilled draftsman is needed which also costs money. Mistakes can happen and so they can be made using CAD as well. Wrong labels or symbols can have a major effect on the business. We can see that both manual and CAD drafting techniques have good and bad points. CAD is more professional way of drawing however an idea starts from a piece of paper and a pencil which is manual so there are established connections between the two. Nothing is perfect and so these two techniques may not be suitable for something but they will do better in another task. The described CAD method does not require drawing skill from the user and it is more tolerant to mistakes because it will not be seen. Manual drawing requires more skills and uses paper which is gained from chopping down trees so it has an impact on the environment. The fact is that we are now in the 21st century and the world will develop as it started as a blueprint and developed to a piece of paper, from piece of paper it became more virtual. We will not predict what can happen to drawing techniques in future and we dont know how much time it will take to develop something new, something that is as popular as the tw o mentioned above. For the mean time the two ways of producing engineering drawings does its job very well.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
summary Chapter 1: The BennetsÃ ¡Ã ¯ new neighbor Rich, young, single man, Mr. Bingley moves next to the BennetsÃ ¡Ã ¯. Mrs. Bennet is very excited and is sure that he is going to marry one of his five daughters. In fact, Mr. Bingley and Jane, the first daughter, are interested in each other. Mr. Darcy, Mr. BingleyÃ ¡Ã ¯s friend, gets interested in Elizabeth although he thought that she was only an unfashionable village girl at first. Chapter 2: JaneÃ ¡Ã ¯s illness Kitty and Lydia get very interested in the regiment that arrives in Meryton where their Aunt lives. Jane goes to visit the BingleyÃ ¡Ã ¯s and becomes ill while going there because of the rain. Elizabeth comes to see how JaneÃ ¡Ã ¯s doing and stays with her for a few days. Mr. BingleyÃ ¡Ã ¯s sisters mock the Bennet family. Jane and Elizabeth go back home a few days later. Chapter 3: Mr. Collins visits Longbourn Mr. Collins, who is to inherit everything when Mr. Bennet dies because of legal reasons, comes to visit the Bennets to do something about the inheritance problem. Mr. Collins thought that he was being very generous to the family. And he is thinking of marrying one of the Bennet girls to make amends to them. Chapter 4: Elizabeth meets Mr. Wickham All the Bennet girls except Mary go to Meryton and meet a man named Mr. Wickham. Elizabeth and Mr. Wickham talk about Darcy and Wickham tells Elizabeth about how terrible a man Darcy is. Bingley is giving a ball at his house and the whole Bennet family goes. Elizabeth is embarrassed by her familyÃ ¡Ã ¯s behavior at the ball. Chapter 5: Mr. Collins proposes marriage Mr. Collins asks Elizabeth to marry him but she refuses. Her mother is very mad about it but her father is glad that she decided not to marry him. Jane receives a letter from Caroline Bingley that their whole family is moving to London for the winter. And she also tells Jane that her brother is probably going to marry Mr. DarcyÃ ¡Ã ¯s sister and Jane gets very depressed. Charlotte Lucas and Mr. Collins get engaged. Chapter 6: Elizabeth visits Mr. And Mrs. Collins Mrs. BennetÃ ¡Ã ¯s brother and his wife Mr. And Mrs. Gardiner come to visit the BennetsÃ ¡Ã ¯ for Christmas. Several days later they return to London and take Jane with them for her to get some fresh air. Mr. Collins and Charlotte get married soon after this and they leave for Hunsford.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Known for the terror it caused the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, The Spanish Inquisition was one of the most deadly inquisitions in history. Used for both political and religious reasons, the time period between the 1400Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s belonged to the Catholic Roman Empire (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1994). In order to better understand the Inquisition, the reasons behind it, and the phenomenal worldwide effect, it is indispensable to examine its preceding events. In 14th century Spain, Jewish people are often associated with wealth, being a epidemic to the general public. When Aragon united with Castille in the marriage of Ferdinand V and Isabella, Spain was on the verge of becoming one of the wealthiest nations of the period. A large part of that prosperity was due to the Jewish community. Archdeacon Martinez of Seville continually tried to motivate the people to cleanse themselves of the Jewish citizens, finally succeeding on Ash Wednesday (March 15), 1391. Mobs flogged and beat the Jewish civilians to renounce their religion and become Christian. The victims of that day amount to hundreds, if not thousands, of unsuspecting people (C. Roth, The Spanish Inquisition, 1964). Although the Jews had become Christian to avoid persecution, they still celebrated their beliefs in secrecy. In 1487, their behavior was discovered during Jewish Passover, which was the same week as the Holy Week for the Catholic Church. Thus, the Spanish Inquisition was f ounded to sanitize the ...
"A 'place in the mind', wherever or whatever it may be, can only ever be fictitious. In the act of its creation, the 'place' is formed by a process that necessitates an imaginative leap; it does not actually exist, and therefore its constituent elements have to be imagined, made up by the creator. For a place - in this case, America - to exist in the realms of the mind, it must be a place that exists outside of a corporeal, material reality. Fiction becomes the perfect arena to present this place, because its very nature allows imagined, idealised and remembered places to exist, a venue where the intangibility of these places can achieve a tangible realisation. Between the pages of a book, the place in the mind can become real, if only for a while; the America that exists between the pages of its nation's fiction is often an America of the mind, but an America that for a fleeting moment achieves a kind of actuality." Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Blithedale Romance", is the first person narration of a man bent upon joining a world that has no need of him by imposing an arbitrary order upon his reality. Blithedale, is a novel of polarities. Just as Coverdale imposes order on reality, Zenobia, the feminine voice of creation, understands reality as a fragmented thing that cannot have order forced upon it. We see in the novel oppositions in communities, in social order, and in place. But, Hawthorne also gives us a richly crafted story about what it is that defines community and the common spirit or communal soul. The romance, of this book, is not just that of man and woman, but of the romantic ideals of society and of order. Coverdale, who is the namesake of the primary translator of the King James bible, is a man bent upon making the world be what he wants it to be. Hawthorne's, The Blithedale Romance, provides the reader with a set of beliefs, ideals, and aspirations, that become ideologies that actually mask reality thus pitting the utopian hopes of Blithedale against actual human behaviors - which makes for a difficult conflict at best Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, into an old Puritan family. Hawthorne's own 17th-century ancestors, as he frankly admitted, had been among the real-life Puritan zealots. "Young Goodman Brown" is a story of initiation. Evil is the nature of mankind.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The topic of abortion is one of the most controversial of our times. It has caused countless deaths and several violent confrontations between the two separate parties of opinion. The fight between pro-life and pro-choice supporters has been long and brutal. This is because, despite what several people may believe, abortion is neither right nor wrong. It is a matter of personal opinion. In this way, each side can say with certainty that the other is wrong. However, the question still remains; should abortion be legal?Though some may disagree on this point, the fact is that legalized abortion is the only option that will protect the lives of American citizens. Therefore, present abortion laws according to Roe v. Wade should be upheld and maintained in the United States (Brown 2). Roe v. Wade was a landmark decision that legalized abortions in the United States. It was about a poor, pregnant woman who filed a lawsuit against the state law of Texas, which stated that abortions were ille gal. The case went all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court, which meant that the decision made affected the nation as a whole.On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Jane Roe and stated that Ã¢â¬Å"the 14th amendment guarantees an adult woman the right to seek a termination of her pregnancy until viabilityÃ¢â¬ (Guernsey 63). From this day on, abortions in the United States were legal. The definitions of the opinions taken on abortion are somewhat unclear to many people. Hopefully, the definitions stated below will be of some help in choosing an opinion. Pro-life supporters believe that a fetus's right to live comes first, before the rights of a pregnant woman.Pro-choice supporters believe that it is a woman's fundamental human right to decide when and whether or not to have the child (Lowenstein19). Nevertheless, while the pro-choice side fights the right to have an abortion, they make a distinction between Ã¢â¬Å"pro-choiceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"pro-abortion,Ã¢â¬ These groups want women to be able to choose an abortion if it is right for them. However, they do not necessarily believe abortion is the solution for everyone (Lowenstein 52). There are many reasons why abortion should be legal. The single most important effect of legalization has been the substitution of safe, legal procedures for abortions that formerly were obtained illegallyÃ¢â¬ ( Jaffe, Lindheim, and Lee 147). One only needs to look into American history to see the results of prohibiting abortions to women. The violence which occurs today because of the pro-choice/pro-life conflicts is minimal in comparison to the thousands of hopeless women who turned to illegal abortions. Women, seeing no other solution to their problems, turned to Ã¢â¬Å"back roomÃ¢â¬ clinics. These clinics were located in poverty-ridden sections of the city and their conditions were deplorable.The places themselves were layered in filth and disease. Inexperienced butchers using dirty and crude equip ment treated the women. As if these backroom clinics were not bad enough, there was an even more appalling decision a woman might face. If she were unable to pay the exorbitant price for the illegal surgery, she would often perform the act herself. Ã¢â¬Å"Knitting needles, coat hangers, antiseptic douches, and poisons were used most oftenÃ¢â¬ (Welton123). It is better now that women have a place to go where abortions can be performed cleanly with minimal risk.Legalization of abortion is the only choice no matter what side on takes in the debate. Women will try to do what they think is necessary to live as they wish, no matter what the risk. Each year 84,000 women die worldwide from failed abortion attempts (Lunneborg67) . Because of anti-abortion legislation, women avoid going to the hospital, often until it is too late, to avoid prosecution from police. In the cases of rape and incest, the very idea of being forced to have the child of the woman's abuser is repulsive. There are also cases when a woman's health is put in jeopardy by having a child at all.Forcing a woman to bring the child to term would be no less than attempted murder (Steffen 49). If a woman is forced to give birth to a child she does not want, if left in that woman's custody, the child could potentially face hatred and resentment from the mother for the rest of its life. In countries all over the world, children are found dead and abandoned in places as degrading as garbage dumps. The only effective method of preventing unwanted births is abstinence, and this is just not a realistic objective. There is no 100% effective form of birth control, and even men and women using birth control have unwanted pregnancies.Some women for financial, occupational, social, and maturity reasons, see pregnancy as cessation of their lives. There are no accurate statistics on how many women attempt or succeed in committing suicide each year rather than live with their pregnancies. Women will continue to gave abortions with or without government legislation, but with legislation, the conditions under which they have their abortions can be sanctioned and observed. If abortion is the right choice for a woman, she shouldn't have to worry about its safety. The procedure is perfectly safe. The earlier an abortion is done, the safer it is.Most abortions, about 95%, are done during the first trimester (Lowenstein 52). Less than one percent are done after the twentieth week, and usually only for medical reasons (Safety 1). According to the National Abortion Federation, having an abortion in the first three months of pregnancy is safer than giving birth to a child. Women hardly ever die from legal abortions-only one in two hundred thousand (Lowenstein 52). Women are seven times likely to die from childbirth than from a legal abortion (Maguire 1). Many pro-life supporters believe that abortion should be banned because life begins at conception and taking a life is unlawful.The individual sex cell consists of 23 chromosomes. It is only through combination, through merger, that the sex cells attain the full complement of heredity units that defines a human being (Shettles 17). The merger of the two sex cells is complete within twelve hours, at which time the egg is fertilized and becomes known technically as the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëzygote. Ã¢â¬ The inherited characteristics of a unique human being has been established, and in no circumstances will it change (Shettles 17). At eighteen days, the heart is pumping through a closed circulatory system, with blood whose type is different from that of the mother's.The brain starts working at forty days. and all of the fetus's body systems are in place by the time it is two months old (Every child 1). Pro-lifers believe this evidence shows a fetus is alive. For these reasons, they feel the fetus has a soul and is a person worthy of respect. They conclude that aborting a fetus is the same as murdering a person (Abortion 3). Most pro-choic e supporters agree that taking a human life is unlawful, however, they argue that unborn fetuses do not constitute fully developed human life. The possession of forty-six chromosomes does not make a cell a person.Most of the cells in a person's body contain these 46 chromosomes, but that does not make a white corpuscle a person. As for the significance of uniqueness, identical quintuplets are genetically identical, yet they have personal identities apart from their genetic endowment. Even though a fetus might have a heartbeat and brain waves, this does not make a fetus a person. To be a person, there must be evidence of a personality. Dogs, frogs, and earthworms have all characteristics listed, but that is insufficient to make them persons Zindler 25). Another major pro-life concern is the medical hazards of an abortion. Pro-lifers believe that abortions have many negative physical and psychological effects. They say that even though abortion has been legalized, it remains a complic ated procedure that can potentially harm a woman's ability to bear normal, healthy babies in the future (Hilgers 152). The most common early complications of legally induced abortion are infection, hemorrhage, perforation of the uterus, and laceration of the cervix (Hilgers 153).There is also a pelvic inflammatory disease which can follow abortion, and happens up to 30 percent of the time (Lowenstein 44). Although the complications are physical, many pro-lifers say that the psychological effects are far more dangerous. They believe abortion has a particularly harmful effects on teenagers (Everyone's Biography 1). The Medical College of Ohio studied how teenagers were able to cope with abortions as compared to adult women. They studied thirty-five women who had abortions as teenagers and thirty-six women who had abortions after age twenty.They found there were two factors present in teenage abortions. First, people other than the teenager had control of the abortion decision. Second, teenagers are less knowledgeable about the procedure and may have false ideas about it. Also, teenagers were less likely to consult a professional before making their decision. The study showed teenagers experienced greater stress during the abortion (Lowenstein 45). Pro-choicers strongly disagree on this matter. It is a proven fact that legal abortions are now medically safe and simple.Teenagers, for example, are 24 times more likely to die from childbirth than from a first-trimester abortion (Carlson 25). Death resulting from legal abortion is a very rare occurrence and easy to measure. In the first trimester, less that half of one percent of all abortion patients experience major complications (Jaffe, Lindheim, and Lee 150). Of course abortion involves some risk, but so do all medical procedures. According to the American Psychiatric Association report published in Science magazine in 1990, there are no significant psychological aftereffects of legal abortion.Legal abortion requ ested by the woman does not cause emotional problems or depression. Some women may feel sad or guilty at first, but not any more or less than any other personal crisis (Lowenstein 53). In particular, teenagers who had abortions seem to behave more normally than others who gave birth to a baby. Teenagers who have abortions are more likely to graduate high school, go to college, and get good jobs (Lowenstein 54). The third most controversial topic on abortions involves so-called hard cases such as rape and incest.The first point pro-lifers make is that the law allowing raped women to get abortions would only affect a few women, less than 1 percent of all abortions each year (Guernsey 68). Pro-life supporters believe the damage has already happened-that of the rape. An abortion will simply cause more psychological and physical harm. Even though half of the fetus if part of the rapist, half of the fetus is part of the woman, too. They believe it is unfair to kill a being who was not res ponsible for the rape (Lowenstein 47). Their feeling is the same for incest.In cases where abortion is chosen, pro-life activists believe an innocent baby is killed for a crime its father commits. The father, instead, should suffer. Pro-lifers believe if abortion is chosen, it helps to hide the fact that incest took place and it might continue(Lowenstein 48). Should abortion be allowed in cases of rape and incest? Absolutely yes, say pro-choicers. There may be serious psychological effects from having a child that was a result of a horrible experience like incest or rape. Pro-choice supporters believe if the woman decides to raise the child, they say, she will have a constant reminder of the incident (Lowenstein 55).Surveys have shown many people would accept abortion in cases of rape or incest (Women 2). Medical research has not determined whether there are genetic tendencies toward sexual crimes. The child may carry some of those genes (Lowenstein55). In summary, abortion is a per sonal choice. No should be able to tell a women whether or not to have a child. Therefore, keeping abortion legal will ensure that situations that involve crisis or health risks to the mother or the fetus can be handled safely and legally.