Tuesday, April 30, 2019

How did the successive stages of capitalism change the UK's accounting Essay - 1

How did the successive stages of capitalist economy change the UKs accounting and financial reporting processes - Essay ExampleThe other is that which supplies his immediate consumption. (Smith, 1776, Web) Revenue in this regard relates to surplus economical production as opposed mere subsistence, entirely also represents a larger, rational pursuit of this surplus in profit. Yet, it is important to note that Adam Smith does not save up specifically of capitalist economy as a carcass, but does define the importance of capital in economic transaction critically in his analysis. (Novara et al., 2003) In his text On Wages (1817), David Ricardo writes that, Capital is that part of the riches of a country which is employed in production, and consists of food, clothing, tools, raw materials, machinery, etc. necessary to give effect to repel. (Ricardo, 1817, Web) Yet, it is Marx who develops capitalism as a musical arrangement theoretically in his works such as Das Kapital (1867) and others which would kick off and define nearly all later intellectual treatment of the subject. (Bryer, 2005) I. A Definition of Capitalism In Wage Labour and Capital (1849) Marx initiates a fundamental definition of capital Capital consists of raw materials, instruments of labour and means of subsistence of all kinds, which are utilized in order to produce unexampled raw materials, new instruments of labour and new means of subsistence... ... ystems, trade, and labor exchanges are found from the early stages of human developing historically, but Sombart points to the use of accounting standards as an indispensable characteristic of capitalism. Through this interpretation, historians can search primary ascendant materials from various societies to determine the degree that accounting records were kept. Where systems of agriculture and early industry involved work relations and paid labor, the development of capitalism historically in the society is evident. Similarly, a communi ty monetary system is essential for the development of marketplace capitalism, as well as the exchange of surpluses in supply and labor. As Basil Yamey writes in Accounting and the Rise of Capitalism (1964) Werner Sombart was largely responsible for the broad thesis that organized of scientific accounting, identified with the double-entry system, played an important part in releasing, activating or accentuating the rationalistic pursuit of profits, and essential of the capitalist spirit. (Winjum, 1971) III. The Pre-Capitalist Era (4000 BC to 1000AD) In the pre-capitalist era, money systems allowed agriculturalists to trade surplus products in a sort that encouraged the growth of capitalism and forms the basis for economic exchange. Some theorists relate capitalism to a system of political values, as the theory of capitalism developed from within the political context of the 18th hundred related to the onset of democracy, liberalism, and modernism historically. This creates the que stion of whether the political definition of capitalism can be lawfully applied to early commercial, industrial, and agricultural trading activity in England in the pre-historical or feudal period. The development of artisan groups and skilled labor

Monday, April 29, 2019

Consumerism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Consumerism - Essay ExampleIn the States a infant spends averagely 10 700 minutes in a week reflexion advertisements. There be so many another(prenominal) advertisements aired daily in America convincing mint to buy products from different companies. This is mainly beca economic consumption America is a hyper-consumerist society. An advertisement not only helps companies in product promotion but also gives a new perception about shopping. The advertisement tends to make people believe that shopping is about happiness. thence many consumers become obsessed with shopping believing it brings self-happiness (OGuinn et al. 283).The truth of the matter is that happiness is realized veritable(a) if it is for a while. The good thing is that there is creation of more and more companies, more goods as strong as job opportunities. This in turn helps in the growth of the United States economy. Most of the advertisements also are directed by children. Business Corporation uses the nagging idea. This is whereby the corporations use children in their advertisements. In turn the children watching the advertisements will nag their parents into buying the new product. Consumerism has also promoted better housing as compared to some old age back. People are also buying more sophisticated home theatre systems, cars as head as clothes (Dwyer 23-46).Consumerism if not well looked at can be a problem to environmental sustainability. Planet earth cannot support the American style of consumption in every nation. There is extremity for magnitude change in consumption patterns among consumers behavior in buying items. Consumers need to stop buying too many toys and base their consumption on non-renewable resources. However, hyper- consumerism brings up many questions. One of the main questions is the use of money. Toys are bought using money, the money used to buy the toys take time to earn (Veblen 1).Most of the people in the contemporary American society, spend most of their times

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Journal of Consumer Research, the Journal of Marketing Research, or Research Paper

Journal of Consumer , the Journal of marketing , or the Journal of Consumer Psychology - Research Paper ExampleIn this experiment, forty university students were use as the participants. The results demonstrated that the participants viewed the print more positively when a fee is not charged. In the second experiment, the designer aimed at understanding how people react to comparable and non-comparable rewards offered back by the brands. In this study, ninety foursome undergraduate students from a university in North America took part. The results showed that exchange oriented consumers expect comparable benefits from the brand partners. For communal consumers or partners, benefits that are not necessarily comparable but recognize their efforts are accepted. Finally, the root undertook an experiment to examine how the time taken between seeking help and offering of help affects consumer behavior. ninety five students took part in the study. Results showed that consumers view bra nds negatively if there is a delay in the kick in favor request. Overall, the behavior of the participants in the three scenarios demonstrated that consumers behavior and attitudes is greatly influenced by the actions of the brands. The use of tender-hearted subjects allowed for an actual observation of the attitudes and behavior of the participants towards the brands, thereby providing an insight into consumer behavior.The present research, conducted by Anat Keinan and Ran Kivetz (2008), aimed at evaluating the effect of anticipating colossal term regret in consumer behavior. The authors argue that anticipating long term regret has an effect on consumer preferences and may motivate them to counteract their virtues or good tendencies and engage in virtues. In order to test this hypothesis, the authors used three sets of participants in three different studies. In the first study, the authors asked participants to examine and judge the regrets of others relating to a past decisio n and then come up with a choice for themselves. 91 train come out travelers participated in the study. The

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Fordism and Post-Fordism as Theories of Work Organisation Essay

Fordism and Post-Fordism as Theories of Work Organisation - Essay Example54-55), it was not until over twenty years later that the stipulation Fordism came into being. Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Communist imprisoned by Mussolini from 1926 to 1937 (Slattery, 1991, p. 125), authored the article Americanism and Fordism in 1931. In this stinging critique of capitalism, he breaks down the fundamental changes occurring to the characteristics of labour. For the purpose of American society-developing in the worker to the mellowest degree automatic and mechanical attitudes, intermission up the old psycho-nexus of qualified professional work and reducing productive operations exclusively to the mechanical, natural aspect (Gramsci, 1931, p. 290).Generally, Fordism is defined by standardisation of labour and components, usage of the assembly line, strict specialisation of semi-skilled labour and high production levels. This plenteousness manufacturing depended on a stable economy and a pre dictable mass consumerism, for without the mass consumption of mass-produced products, companies would quickly go bankrupt (ODonnell, 1997, p. 252). The fundamental need for so many consumers led to the nurture of widespread advertising (Kirby et al, 2000, p. 340). Yet what distinguishes this paradigm shift is, as Gramsci noted above, the removal of decision-making power from the worker. A relative contemporary of Ford, Frederick Taylor, proposed that all mental activity should be removed from the agenty floor so workers could almost become machines, with their pay tied to personal productivity (ODonnell, 1997, p. 288). Fordism meant great homogeny, efficiency and output, which in bowl over meant greater prosperity. However, the strict division of labour created an unmotivated work force increasingly alienated from management. belligerent pay was not sufficient to stop the rapid turnover, and the growth of unions such as Industrial Workers of the macrocosm during this period at tests to this dissatisfaction (Grint, 1998, p. 284). Additionally, Fordism needed a reliable economy and consumer base-this is illustrated by the number of companies, such as Ford, which exactly survived the American Great Depression due to large scale government intervention (ODonnell, 1997, p. 252). Another factor is that drastic increases in productivity of the first stage of Fordism were unique-subsequent changes were less effective, for there was a finite limit to, or at least declining return from, the extent to which time and motion studies etc. could increase productivity (Grint, 1998, p. 284). Once an faultless industry converted, it became difficult to continue finding significant ways to heighten productivity and further simplification costs. Eventually these disadvantages, along with the rise of a new type of mass consumerism, would set the stage for the conditions the following system of work organisation is based upon-Post-Fordism. As technological advances and co nsumer wants became more varied, a new theory of work organisation was proposed in The Second Industrial Divide by Michael Piore and Charles Sabel in 1984. Responding to the economic downswing of the 1970s and the limitations of mass production (Kirby et al, 2000, p. 340), they held that a new system was coming into being, motivated by increasing consumer pray for specialised

Friday, April 26, 2019

Ohio Casino Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Ohio Casino - Essay ExampleIn ways I can attain how the casinos can benefit the state and bring more money in the state then aside of the state. One thing intimately casinos is that they ar looked at cosmos corrupt and just taking bulks money. Notice why many Ohioans might be angry about the casinos being run by certain Politians to watch over. On a blog with comments about the conflict one soulfulness said All the crooks in Ohio have their handouts trying to get a bigger piece of the pie, how pathetic No wonder Ohio keeps sinking further in its sinkhole (Mangels). Could this person be talking about the politicians, in which some Politicians are corrupt and being played to pass this. After the recession hit, Ohio was one of the worst hit states and in turn suffered repellant job losses and foreclosures. When forwarding the proposal to build these casinos the strongest case that was presented was that the construction of these casinos will result in creating a huge number of j obs and bringing in the tax revenue that went to the nearby states casinos, from the pockets of Ohio residents (Adamson). The focus of advertisement campaigns was fit(p) on the recession hit jobless people. During the term that the voting was due for the legislation that would legalize gaming in Ohio Studies and reviews started appearing which highlighted the significance of these casinos and how jobs would be created for the people of Ohio. Print media and television advertisements targeted the jobless people of Ohio and how these casinos are the only way out. But opposed to this view a local in an article says that, at that place are so many other options other than gambling that can help the economy that does non pose a risk to others (Hunt). some other person remarked that, I wonder if the pro-gambling groups main focus is on creating jobs or on finding a way to tax the public There are sure enough other types of businesses that will create jobs (Anthony Hopper cited in Hunt). In 2009, the Job and Growth Committee publish the results of a get a line that related that 20, 000 jobs would result from the industry along with $600 billion revenues and a private enthronisation of $1 billion all of this going to the federal budget (Adamson). Not surprisingly the revenue make out is already far below what was projected in the study and was inturn approved by the people of Ohio (Mayers). Another study was issued by the Department of Taxation, just a month prior to the vote the study alike focused on the financial revenues and jobs that would be created as a result of the industry but the study completely ignored as to what repercussions the industry will have in terms of social, business and familial aspects and the surrounding competition, which according to experts has resulted in the low revenues generated (Mangels Mayers). The lobby invested a gruesome amount of $47 billion to campaign for the Ohio Casino and Gambling Industry, which is quadrupled amount of what the opponents of the campaign could get together while their commercials touted the jobs and tax revenue the gambling palaces would generate (Mangels). The anti-gambling campaign could only be heard from on the internet or the issue media, no reportable television coverage was done leaving a large mass of audiences unconscious(predicate) of their perspective as Brian Rothenberg of Progress Ohio says that the whole campaign, was so focused on jobs at a time when Ohio was hyper jobs-conscious

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Aristotles Nicomachean morals - Research Paper ExampleTo strengthen virtuousness, this has to be exercised and observed at all cartridge holders. In the selfsame(prenominal) valet de chambrener that nature nurtures the body that is rightfully nourished and trained, virtue is also strengthened by continual observation. This virtue or moral disposition is determined on how pain or pleasure influences an soulfulnesss behavior. If a man is susceptible to pleasure, he is licentious. But if he is able to restrain himself and abstains from lunacy in physical pleasure naturally without distressing himself, then that said man is blameless. The ability to control oneself from excessive physical pleasure is necessary because it is the temptation of pleasure and its excesses that delineates and induces us to be birth badly. For us to hunt and become virtuous, training is necessary for an individual to feel and experience joy and grief at the right time which is a requirement in the o bservance of the golden mean. This training has to begin in babyhood for us to be educated on becoming virtuous because joy and grief are the elemental motivations that dictates our forgeions. If our sense of joy and grief are misplaced that is, feeling joy and grief at the defile time and place, it would inhibit us from becoming virtuous. We would tend to be shunning the wrong pains and we would be seeking the wrong virtues that would lead us to become licentious. Early training would predispose us to act according to the right virtues and would avoid vice. This sense of virtue which had been nurtured since infancy would also dictate on how we make choices. The good man, who had been trained since infancy to be feel joy and grief at the right time and place is likely to be right in his choices. In the same vein, the bad man pass on likely to decide wrong when given a choice especially when it involves pleasures. Pain and pleasure modulate our conduct and the virtuous man is h e who effectively regulates his sense of pleasure and pain. And the real virtuous man is he who exercises virtue by choice and not just performs them because it is expedient. Rather, the real virtuous man effectively conducts himself and makes those choices for the sake of doing it amid difficulty and he knows what he is doing. Knowing the choices that one is making that is virtuous is different from an ensuant virtuous man who only acts virtuous when it serves a particular purpose or without difficulty. The real virtuous man chooses it from a fix and steady purpose whatever the circumstance or qualification. The doctrine of the golden mean According to Aristotle, the acquisition of virtue is a result of the right habit which was nurtured by statement and choice. This virtue which has been nurtured by early training and conscientious choice can be destroyed both by excesses or deficiency and it is important that the individual should hit the mean condition of virtue to proceed virtuous. This golden mean according to Aristotle is an approximation of in-betweens between two extremes that is neither excessive nor deficient. It is to feel fear, confidence, desire, anger, condole with and pleasure that is neither too much nor too little because both polarized directions are wrong. What is desired is to have feelings at the right times on the right grounds towards the right people for the right pauperization and in the right way is to feel them to an intermediate, that is to the best, degree and this is the mark of virtue. Such, there are three dispositions of virtue which are excessive, deficient and the

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

HUMAN RIGHTS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

HUMAN RIGHTS - appointment ExampleThe Second World struggle was unique in its own way and presented number of challenges. It had brought astir(predicate) destruction and catastrophe in a form never seen before (Ishay, 2008, p.179). It saw the usage of atomic miscarry. A bomb that was strong enough to bring down entire cities. A single bomb resulted in life loss of over 46 thousand in Japan. The war had left millions dead, and those who managed to become did not count themselves lucky just because of the troubles they faced. The problems at the end of the Second World War were multifold, ranging from stinting and politic to social and compassionateitarian. All sought immediate solution. For this purpose, a realisation developed to create an entity that would cheer the rights of people and provide them with shelter in form of human rights protection acts and resolutions. This entity came into existence in the spend a penny of get together Nations. It was right in the last phas es of the Second World War, where the resolve was shown for establishing such an entity that would protect the people. The first gear causality of war is always humanity. Regardless of the size of war, be it a local war, local dispute between tribes, a bilateral war or a war that spreads across the continent and across the ocean, all eye human life and human rights. The resolve against human depravity and exploitation was shown, and the aims include protection of the human rights and ensuring that no other war takes place in history again. So far, the United Nations has succeeded to a certain extent in ensuring that the war is not fought on an international level. What has changed about the image of international relations? As a result of United Nations existence, the nations outlook and approach to international sleep and regional stability has changed in a whole dynamic manner. Each nation is more come to with the regional peace than they might had been in past. Under the c harter of the United Nations, each of the rural has the accountability to ensure peace in their respective regions and also on international platform. They should denounce any oppression and any tyranny being performed in the name of governance over people. They should raise their voice for compare of the masses. They should denounce the actions of belligerents for example, the case of the United States of America, which believed in international isolation prior to the Second World War and prior to the creation of the United Nations. It has changed its approach and has become an active member in the pursuit of spheric peace and protection of human rights ever since the end of the Second World War. This is the prime example of how the countrys mood has changed towards a more global community, where peace of one is peace of all. The United States stood totally indifferent to European conflicts in the First World War. And the prime example comes in form of the group discussion of Nations and Woodrow Wilson Fourteen points that were not endorsed by the local bodies. However, seeing the importance of international peace and stability, they changed their approach at the end of the Second World War. What kind of actor is best suited to pursue international human rights individuals, NGOs, states or intergovernmental organizations? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each? Each of the members is an international entity in modern international law, and each has an incumbrance of responsibility. Each works in their own domain towards achieving the goal of equal human rights and